COVID-19 and animals: updates

spotlight topic:


11 August 2022

Added Case Report:

SARS-ANI VIS: a global open access dataset of reported SARS-CoV-2 events in animals.  [Complexity Science Hub, Vienna] [online]. Available from: [Accessed 10 August 2022].

Allender, M.C. et al. (2022) Multi‐species outbreak of SARS‐CoV‐2 Delta variant in a zoological institution, with the detection in two new families of carnivores. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

Added Epidemiological study: Ferrets/Minks

Davoust, B. et al. (2022) Evidence of antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 in wild mustelids from Brittany (France). Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Added Impact of the pandemic: Companion animals

Riggio, G. et al. (2022) Cat-Owner relationship and cat behaviour: Effects of the COVID-19 confinement and implications for feline management, Veterinary Sciences, 9, no. 369.

18 July 2022

Added Case report:

Sila, T et al. (2022) Suspected Cat-to-Human transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Thailand, July-September 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28 (7), pp.1485-1488.

Fiorito, F. et al. (2022) First description of serological evidence for SARS-CoV-2 in lactating cows. Animals, 12 (11) p. 1459.

Pereira, A.H.B. et al. (2022) Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in a free-ranging Black-Tailed Marmoset (Mico melanurus) from an urban area in Mid-West Brazil. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 194, pp. 22-27.

Wang, L. et al. (2022) Detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 clade B.1.2 in three snow leopards. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases,

Added Experimental study: Diagnostic testing:

Bold, D. et al. Development of an indirect ELISA for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cats. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 864884.

Added Experimental study: Vaccination:

Barroso-Arevalo, S. et al (2022) A subunit vaccine candidate based on the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 prevents infectious virus shedding in cats. Research in Veterinary Science, 148, pp 52-64.

Added Experimental study: Ferrets/Minks

Virtanen, J. et al. (2022) Experimental infection of Mink with SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant and subsequent clinical disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28 (6), pp. 1286-1288.

Added Epidemiological study: Cats and dogs:

Bienzle, D. et al. (2022) Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Illness in Cats and Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28 (6), pp. 1154-1162.

Added Impact of the pandemic:

Hickey, M.C., Napier, E and Ong, H.M. (2022) Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on small animal trauma patterns in Australia: a multicentre study. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 908679.

Owczarczak-Garstecka, S.C. et al (2022) Impacts of COVID-19 on owner’s veterinary healthcare seeking behaviour for dogs with chronic conditions: an exploratory mixed-methods study with a convenience sample.  Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 902219

Caney, S.M.A. et al. (2022) Veterinary surgeons’, veterinary nurses’ and owners’ experiences of feline telemedicine consultations during the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic. Veterinary Record, p. e1738.

13 June 2022

Added Case report: Black-tailed marmoset

17 May 2022

Added Impact of the pandemic: Veterinary practice:

Smith, S.M. et al (2022) Opportunities for expanding access to veterinary care: lessons from COVID-19. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 804794.

Rowe, Z.C. et al (2022) Challenges faced by U.S. veterinary technicians in the workplace during COVID-19. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 831127.

Added Impact of the pandemic: Companion animals:

Brand, C.L. et al (2022) Pandemic puppies: demographic characteristics, health and early life experiences of puppies acquired during the 2020 phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Animals, 12 (5), p. 629.

Wells, D.L. et al (2022) Quality of the human–animal bond and mental wellbeing during a COVID-19 lockdown. Anthrozoös.

Gunter, L.M.  (2022) Emergency fostering of dogs from animal shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic: shelter practices, foster caregiver engagement, and dog outcomes. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, no. 862590.

Added Experimental studies Vaccination

Added Case report  Variant B.1.617.2 (Delta)

Added Case report Dog with pulmonary fibrosis

Added Case report  Eurasian River Otter

21 March 2022

Added Impact of the pandemic: Veterinary practice:

Simons, M. C., Pulliam, D. and Hunt, J. A. (2022) The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on veterinary clinical and professional skills teaching delivery and assessment format. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.

Robinson, D., Cetera, R. and Alexander, K.(2021) Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on veterinary nurses: A survey report for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons: Summary of findings. [online] Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies. Available from: [accessed 21 March 2022]

Robinson, D., Cetera, R. and Alexander, K.(2021) Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on veterinary surgeons: A survey report for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons: Summary of findings. [online] Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies. Available from: [accessed 21 March 2022]

Added Impact of the pandemic: One welfare:

Fine, L. et al.  (2022) Staff perceptions of COVID-19 impacts on wildlife conservation at a zoological institution. Zoo Biology.

1 February 2022

Added Case report: Hamster Hong Kong

Added Case report: Determining the role of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in the death of domestic pets: 10 cases (2020–2021

Added Case report: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human to domestic ferret

Added Case report: reporting infection of cats and dogs with alpha variant (B.1.1.7.)

Added Experimental study: Impact of animal saliva on the performance of rapid antigen tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 (wildtype and variants B. 1.1. 7 and B. 1.351)

Added Experimental study: Receptor-binding domain–based immunoassays for serosurveillance differentiate efficiently between SARS-CoV2–exposed and non-exposed farmed mink

Added Epidemiological study: A cross-sectional retrospective study of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in domestic cats, dogs and rabbits in Poland

Added Epidemiological study: Large‐scale study on virological and serological prevalence of SARS‐CoV‐2 in cats and dogs in Spain

Added Epidemiological study: SARS-CoV-2–Specific Antibodies in Domestic Cats during First COVID-19 Wave, Europe

Added Epidemiological study: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in farmed mink (Neovison vison), Poland

Added Epidemiological study: SARS-CoV2 spike protein gene variants with N501T and G142D mutation–dominated infections in mink in the United States

Added Epidemiological study: Deers – OIE Statement on monitoring white-tailed deer for SARS-CoV-2

13 December 2021

Added Impact of the pandemic: Veterinary practice:

Dubin, R.J. et al (2021) Veterinarians’ perceptions of COVID-19 pandemic–related influences on veterinary telehealth and on pet owners’ attitudes toward cats and dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 259 (10), pp. 1140-1147.

Hoffman, C.L., Thibault, M. and Hong, J.(2021) Characterizing pet acquisition and retention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p. 1375.

Limper, C.B., Hinckley-Boltax, A.L. and Cazer, C.L. (2021)  Brief Research Report: Veterinary student perspective on COVID-19 and veterinary medicine. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p. 1213.

McKee, H. et al (2021) High psychosocial work demands, decreased well-being, and perceived well-being needs within veterinary academia during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p. 1200.

Morris, A., Wu, H. and Morales, C. (2021) Barriers to care in veterinary services: lessons learned from low-income pet guardians’ experiences at private clinics and hospitals during COVID-19. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p. 1227.

Mureşan, A.N., Morariu, S., Baisan, R.A., Costea, R. and Mureşan, C., 2021. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic during lockdown on the veterinary profession in Romania: a questionnaire-based survey. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8,  p. 1342.

Quain, A, Mullan, S. and Ward, M.P. (2021) Risk factors associated with increased ethically challenging situations encountered by veterinary team members during the COVID-19 pandemic Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p. 1186.

Quain, A, Mullan, S. and Ward, M.P. (2021) Communication challenges experienced by veterinary professionals during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Australian Veterinary Journal.

Added Impact of the pandemic: Companion animal:

Martinez-Caja, A. M. et al (2021) Pets and their owners during the first COVID-19 lockdown period: perceived changes in routines and emotions – an exploratory study. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.

Phillipou, A. et al (2021)  Pet ownership and mental health during COVID-19 lockdown. Australian Veterinary Journal, 99 (10), pp. 423-426.

Vučinić, M.,  Vučićević, M. and KNenadović, K. (2022) The COVID-19 pandemic affects owners walking with their dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 48, pp. 1-10.Pages 1-10,

1 November 2021

Added Impact of the pandemic: Schor, M. and Protopopova, A. (2021)  Effect of COVID-19 on pet food bank servicing: quantifying numbers of clients serviced in the Vancouver Downtown Eastside, British Columbia, Canada. Frontiers in Veterinary Science,  8, p 1074.
Added Impact of the pandemic: Siettou, C. (2021) Societal interest in puppies and the Covid-19 pandemic: A google trends analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 196, p. 105496.

27 September 2021

Added Case report: Asiatic lions – India
Added Epidemiological study: Smith, S.L. et al (2021) SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies in dogs and cats in the United KingdomCurrent Research in Virological Science, 2, p. 100011.
Added Epidemiological study: Stevanovic, V. et al (2021) Seroprevalence of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection among pet animals in Croatia and potential public health impactTransboundary and Emerging Diseases, 68 (4), pp. 1767-1773.
Added Epidemiological study: Calvet, G.A. et al (2021) Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats of humans diagnosed with COVID-19 in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilPLOS ONE, 16 (4), p. e0250853.
Added Epidemiological study: van der Leij, W.J.R. et al (2021) Serological screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Dutch shelter catsViruses, 13 (8), p. 1634.
Added Epidemiological study: Schulz, C. et al (2021) Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding from therapy cat after cluster outbreak in retirement homeEmerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (7), pp. 1974-1976.
Added Epidemiological study: Gortazar, C. et al (2021) Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in kept ferrets, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (7), pp. 1994-1996.
Added Epidemiological study: van Aart, A.E. et al (2021) SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in cats and dogs in infected mink farms. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.
Added Impact of the pandemic: Impact of the pandemic

6 August 2021

Added Epidemiological study: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2021) Surveillance Data Shows White-Tailed Deer Exposed to SARS-CoV-2

16 June 2021

Added Case report: Hamer, S.A. et al (2021) SARS‐CoV‐2 B.1.1.7 variant of concern detected in a pet dog and cat after exposure to a person with COVID‐19, USA. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.
Added Experimental study: Palmer, M.V. et al (2021) Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Virology, 95 (11), no. e00083-21.
Added Epidemiological study: Villanueva‐Saz, S. et al (2021) Serological evidence of SARS‐CoV‐2 and co‐infections in stray cats in Spain. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.
Added Epidemiological study: Shriner, S.A. et al (2021) SARS-CoV-2 exposure in escaped mink, Utah, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (3), pp. 988-990.

15 June 2021

Added summary for Case report: Hosie, M.J. et al (2021) Detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 in respiratory samples from cats in the UK associated with human‐to‐cat transmission. Veterinary Record, 188 (8), pp. no. e247.

12 May 2021

Added Review: Ghai, R.R. et al. (2021) Animal reservoirs and hosts for emerging alphacoronaviruses and betacoronavirusesEmerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (4), pp 1015-1022.

Added Case report: Hosie, M.J. et al (2021) Detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 in respiratory samples from cats in the UK associated with human‐to‐cat transmission. Veterinary Record, 188 (8), no. e247.

22 March 2021

Added Experimental study: Protective immunity and persistent lung sequelae in domestic cats after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Added Experimental study: Susceptibility of Raccoon Dogs for experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection
Added Epidemiological study: Myocarditis in naturally infected pets with the British variant of COVID-19
Added Epidemiological study: Frequency of respiratory pathogens and SARS‐CoV‐2 in canine and feline samples submitted for respiratory testing in early 2020
Added Epidemiological study: The risk from SARS‐CoV‐2 to bat species in England and mitigation options for conservation field workers
Added Epidemiological study: SARS-CoV-2 transmission between mink (Neovison vison) and humans, Denmark

18 January 2021
Added Case report: Gorillas – US
Added COVID-19 cases that have been reported to USDA

25 November

Added Experimental study: Experimental infection of cattle with SARS-CoV-2
Added Experimental study: Susceptibility of domestic swine to experimental infection with SARS-CoV-2
Added Experimental study: Experimental infection of domestic dogs and cats with SARS-CoV-2: pathogenesis, transmission, and response to reexposure in cats
Added Experimental study: SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance
Added Epidemiological study: SARS-CoV-2 in Quarantined Domestic Cats from COVID-19 Households or Close Contacts, Hong Kong, China
Added Epidemiological study: High prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pets from COVID-19+ households
Added Epidemiological study: Ferrets not infected by SARS-CoV-2 in a high-exposure domestic setting
Added Review: Animals and SARS‐CoV‐2: Species susceptibility and viral transmission in experimental and natural conditions, and the potential implications for community transmission
Added Review: Natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals: a review of case reports and current evidence of their role in the epidemiology of COVID-19
Added Review: Pandemic danger to the deep: the risk of marine mammals contracting SARS-CoV-2 from wastewater
Added Review: Predicting susceptibility to SARS‐CoV‐2 infection based on structural differences in ACE2 across species
Updated Case report: Cat – UK
Updated Experimental study: Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and different domestic animals to SARS-coronavirus-2
Updated Experimental study: COVID-19: Experimental infection of fruit bats, ferrets, pigs and chicken with SARS-CoV-2
Updated Epidemiological study: SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing serum antibodies in cats: a serological investigation

9 November

Added Case report: Mink – Denmark mutation
Added Epidemiological study: Mink – Netherlands
Updated Case report: Mink – Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Sweden

2 September

Updated Case report: Cat – Spain

28 July

Added Case report: Cat – UK
Added Epidemiological study: Evidence of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in cats and dogs from households in Italy
Updated Case report: Mink – Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Sweden
Updated Case report: Tiger & Lion Bronx Zoo

17 July

Added Review: Infection with SARS-COV2 in animals
Updated case report: Mink – Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Sweden

3 July 2020

Added Review: COVID-19 from veterinary medicine and one health perspectives: What animal coronaviruses have taught us
Updated case report: Mink – Netherlands & Denmark

9 June 2020

Added Case report: Dog – New York
Added Case report: Cat – Minnesota
Added Experimental study: Pathogenesis, transmission and response to re-exposure of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats
Updated Case report: Mink – Netherlands

15 May 2020

Added Experimental study: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats
Added Case report: Cat – Spain
Added Case report: 2 Cats – France
Added Case report: Cat – Germany
Updated Case report: Mink – Netherlands
Updated Case report: Dog 1 Pomeranian – Hong Kong
Updated Case report: Dog 2 German Shepherd – Hong Kong

27 April 2020

Added Case report: Mink – Netherlands
Added Experimental study: SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets
Added Experimental study: Simulation of the clinical and pathological manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in golden Syrian hamster model: implications for disease pathogenesis and transmissibility

23 April 2020

Added Case report: 2 Cats – New York
Updated Case report: Tiger & Lion Bronx Zoo added information on lion testing positive for SARS-CoV-2

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